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What is menstruation

What is menstruation (usually period)?

The first menstrual period (menarche) begins during puberty. The bleeding is a sign of early maturity and fertility. In more or less regular cycles is repeated in the body from now on an interplay of hormones. In young girls and women in menopause, the bleeding is often irregular. The menstrual fluid is blood from the uterus and parts of the endometrium.


The female sex organs

The internal sex organs of women consist of two ovaries and fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina (vagina). The ovaries are responsible to train mature fertilizable eggs. If the ovary is by hormones (follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone, FSH and LH), stimulates the egg matures. Around mid-cycle dissolves in the mature egg from the ovary (ovary). This process is called ovulation or ovulation.

The egg travels down the fallopian tube after all (tube) to the uterus (womb). The endometrium is prepared by the action of these hormones and progesterone (progesterone) to incorporate the egg. Progesterone is released shortly after ovulation. If the egg is fertilized, it attaches itself in the endometrium.

If no fertilization takes place, there is a diminished supply of progesterone, the uterine lining which is broken down and are shed residues in the menstrual period (menstruation).

At each monthly period a woman loses about 150 milliliters of blood. The whole cycle takes about 28 days. Unless the woman is pregnant, he starts all over again. The cycle time between the first day of menstruation and the last day before the next menstrual period is counted. Cycle lengths of 25 to 35 days are considered normal.

When menstruation begins?

Most girls get their first period at age 10 to 14 years. The average is 12.5 years.

Women get her period until they are between 45 and 55 years and menopause begins. Overall, a woman gets in their lives about 500 menstrual bleeding.

Can you feel ovulation?

Many women feel their ovulation (ovulation). It is noticeable as a weak pain in the abdomen. Some women are having the time of ovulation also has a small circulation.

The timing of ovulation can be determined by body temperature. At the time of ovulation it rises by 0.5 degrees. This is exploited in the temperature method. At best it is in the mouth (oral) or intestine (measured rectally).

You should measure the temperature every day before getting up. In order to compare the measurements, they should choose a type of temperature measurements (oral or rectal). Increases body temperature, ovulation took place. This takes about eight to ten days after each menstrual period (about the 14th day of the cycle). This is also the most fertile time in the cycle.

In the middle of the cycle, the vaginal discharge mucous-like threads and moves. Also on the consistency of the mucus can be seen the time of ovulation.

What factors affect menstruation?

The menstrual cycle is a very complex process involving many hormones, the female sex organs and nervous system are involved.

Hormones and hormones affect the menstrual cycle. For an irregular cycle, your doctor should measure hormone levels in the blood and determine whether it is in equilibrium.

The body weight also plays a role in the menstrual cycle. Underweight often brings the release of hormones and thus the menstruation stops. Recent studies have shown that extreme obesity leads to irregular menstrual bleeding. Compared to women with ideal weight, they are not so easily get pregnant. Proper nutrition is especially important.

Stress is another factor that influences the hormones and menstruation. Menstruation is, in some cases altogether. Fear of women to be pregnant out, the stress sometimes for later onset of menstruation. Mental and physical balance have a positive effect on the control days.

Regular exercise and mental and physical balance are for pain-free and reasonably convenient "rule days" most beneficial. Too much sports and overexertion can affect the hormone so far that the absent menstruation altogether.

What problems can occur during menstruation?

Women feel during menstruation varies. Many have no problems, others are limited by extreme pain in their activities.

The following symptoms may occur:

  • Spasmodic contractions (painful contraction) in the abdomen,
  • Pain in the abdomen,
  • Back pain,
  • Nausea, possibly accompanied by vomiting,
  • Diarrhea;
  • Sweating;
  • Fatigue and lack of energy.

Pain and discomfort, why?

During menstruation prostaglandins are released into the uterus. They are hormone-like substances that trigger different regulatory mechanisms of the body or interfere with them. From the uterus, for example, they can cause perceived as painful contractions. Blood and mucous residues are excreted through the contractions. Other causes of painful periods may be earlier infections or benign nodes in the muscle wall of the uterus (fibroids). This is especially true for slightly older women.

Severe period pain can be treated successfully with combined preparations of estrogen and progestin (eg, pill or vaginal ring). Also progestin preparations, such as new mini-pill, mini pill, the contraceptive implants, or the three-month injection is suitable. By the hormones the endometrium is less built up, the wound is smaller when dissolve the remains in the blood and the blood is running to weaker and shorter.
Tips for Well-being

You can do several things to feel better:
  • Do not use caffeine-containing beverages such as coffee, black tea and cola.
  • Avoid stress and relax.
  • Have a massage from your partner.
  • Do you exercise but do not overwork your body.
  • Stay warm and have warm drinks.
  • If you have particularly severe pain, take pain medication. Seek advice from your doctor or pharmacist.

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